Types and differences of PVC plasticizers

Fatty acid esters

Fatty acid esters have good low-temperature properties, but poor solubility with PVC, so they can only be used as cold resistant by-products and phthalate esters. The most commonly used varieties are dioctyl adipate and dioctyl sebacate.

Dioctyl adipate (DOA) is a colorless, odorless liquid, non-toxic, soluble in most organic solvents, slightly soluble in glycol, insoluble in water. The critical plasticizing temperature of DOA for PVC is 12l-125 ℃.


Diisodecyl adipate (DIDA) is a clear and easy flowing oil like liquid.

Dioctyl azelaite (D0Z) is almost colorless and transparent liquid.

Dibutyric sebacate (DBS) is almost colorless liquid.

Dioctyl sebacate (DOS) is almost colorless oily liquid, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether and other organic solvents.

Diisooctyl sebacate (DIOS) is a colorless and clear liquid, soluble in most organic solvents such as ketones, alcohols, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons, and slightly soluble in amines and polyols.

Di (2-ethylbutyric acid) triethylene glycol ester (3GH) is the most widely used plasticizer in polyvinyl butyral film for safety glass. It is also a good plasticizer for fiber reinforced plastics, acrylate plastics and PVC.

Phthalate esters

Phthalic acid is the most widely used main plasticizer at present. It has many varieties and high yield. It has the characteristics of light color, low toxicity, good electrical performance, small volatile, less odor and general low temperature resistance. At present, the consumption of phthalates accounts for 80-85% of the total consumption of plasticizers, among which dioctyl phthalate and diisooctyl phthalate are the most commonly used.

Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) is a colorless oily liquid with special odor.


Diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) is almost colorless viscous liquid, soluble in most organic solvents and hydrocarbons, cas number is 32305-98-9.


Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) viscous liquid, soluble in most organic solvents and hydrocarbons, insoluble or slightly soluble in glycerol, glycol and some amines. It is less volatile than DOP. It is a low volatile plasticizer with good electrical properties but poor solubility.

The volatility of DINP is only half of that of DOP at high temperature.

Dioctyl Terephthalate (DOTP) is a little yellow transparent liquid with aromatic smell, which is soluble in most organic solvents and hydrocarbons. The critical plasticizing temperature of DOTP for PVC is 150 ℃. DOTP is now the most widely used in PVC gloves that can be acceptable by Food contact. It has below details.

  1. DOTP has good electrical and thermal properties. It can replace DOP in PVC plastic electric wire sheath, and can also be used in the production of artificial leather film. In addition, it has excellent compatibility and can also be used for plasticizing acrylonitrile derivatives, polyvinyl butyral, nitrile rubber, nitrocellulose, etc. It can be used as softener in NBR, Cr, EPDM and other products. It has good plasticizing effect and low volatility, and is widely used in various products requiring heat resistance and high insulation. It is an ideal plasticizer for producing 70 ℃ temperature resistant cable material and other PVC products requiring volatile resistance.
  2. DOTP can be used in PVC products in cars to solve the fogging problem of glass windows. DOTP is also used in high-grade furniture and interior decoration paints, coatings and high-quality lubricants or lubricating additives for precision instruments, nitro varnish auxiliaries, paper softeners, polyester amide biaxial tensile films, film plastic crafts, plasma storage bags, etc.
  3. Because the linear molecular structure of DOTP is similar to dos and DOA, its cold resistance is also good.
  4. The volume resistivity of DOTP is 10-20 times higher than that of DOP and has excellent migration resistance.
  5. Since DOTP does not contain phthalates and is not within the range of 16 phthalate containing plasticizers restricted by EU and other countries, DOTP is an excellent environmental friendly plasticizer.


Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a colorless transparent liquid with aromatic smell, which is soluble in most organic solvents and hydrocarbons. The critical plasticizing temperature of DBP for PVC is 90-95 ℃.

Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) is a colorless and transparent liquid. When DiBP was used in PVC agricultural film, it was found that rice seedlings were rotten due to its precipitation.

Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) is a transparent oily liquid, soluble in organic solvents and hydrocarbons, but insoluble in water. The critical plasticizing temperature of BBP for PVC was 96-100 ℃.

Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is a colorless oily liquid with aromatic odor. It is insoluble in water at room temperature and miscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is miscible with most resins

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a colorless, oily liquid, non-toxic, with a slight aromatic odor, and soluble in most organic solvents.

Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) is a white crystalline powder with aromatic odor. It is soluble in most organic solvents, completely soluble in hot gasoline and mineral oil, and slightly soluble in glycol and some amines.

The physical properties of DOTP and DOP are similar, and the mechanical properties of products are also similar, but the volatile parts of DOTP are much smaller than DOP.


Phosphate ester and PVC resin have good compatibility, transparency, but toxicity. They are both plasticizers and flame retardants. The low-temperature performance of aromatic phosphoric acid vinegar is very poor, while the low-temperature performance of aliphatic phosphate ester is better, but the thermal stability is poor, and the durability is not as good as aromatic phosphate ester. Its main varieties are triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate.

Triphenyl phosphate (TCP)

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is a white needle like crystal with slight aromatic smell, which is slightly soluble in ethanol, ether, benzene, chloroform and acetone.

Diphenyl octyl phosphate (DPOP) is a light yellow transparent oily liquid.

Toluene diphenyl phosphate (CDPP) is a clear, odorless, oily liquid.

Epoxy esters

Epoxy plasticizer is a kind of additive widely used in recent years. It can not only absorb the hydrogen chloride released by the decomposition of PVC resin, but also dissolve with PVC resin. Therefore, it is both a plasticizer and a stabilizer. It is mainly used as a side plasticizer for PVC products with high weather resistance. Its main varieties are epoxy soybean oil, epoxy fatty acid octyl ester and so on.

Epoxidized soybean oil is a fatty acid mixture of monoglycerin. Epoxidized soybean oil is a yellow oily liquid, nontoxic and soluble in most organic solvents and hydrocarbons. When epoxidized soybean oil is used with polyester plasticizer, the migration of the latter can be avoided.

Epoxy fatty acid butyl ester has different fatty acid composition. Epoxy fatty acid butyl ester includes epoxy stearate butyl ester, epoxy furfural oleate butyl ester, epoxy soybean oleate butyl ester, epoxy cottonseed oleate butyl ester, epoxy vegetable oleate butyl ester, epoxy xanthan oleate butyl ester, epoxidized pig oleate butyl ester and so on.

Epoxy fatty acid octyl ester (ED3) has different structures due to different fatty acids, such as epoxy octyl stearate, epoxy soybean oleate, epoxy tol oleate, etc.

Epoxy dioctyl tetrahydrophthalate (EPS) is a colorless to light yellow oily liquid.

Chlorinated plasticizer

Chlorinated paraffin is the most widely used chlorinated plasticizer at present. Chlorinated paraffin has the advantages of low price, excellent electrical properties and flame retardancy, but poor phase solubility and thermal stability, so it is only used as a side plasticizer.

Chlorinated paraffin is a kind of golden yellow or amber viscous liquid, nonflammable and extremely volatile. Soluble in most organic solvents, insoluble in water and ethanol. When heated above 120 ℃, it will decompose and give off hydrogen chloride. Metal oxides such as iron and zinc promote their decomposition. The flame retardancy of chlorinated paraffin with higher chlorine content is also better.

Chlorohydrocarbon-50. It is a clear and viscous liquid. It is tasteless, nontoxic, nonflammable, insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and easily soluble in benzene and ether.

Alkyl sulfonic acid vinegar

This kind of plasticizer has good solubility and can be used as main plasticizer. If it is used together with phthalate esters, the effect is better. Its mechanical properties, electrical properties, weather resistance is good, but poor cold resistance.

Benzene petroleum sulfonate (M-50) is a light yellow transparent oily liquid.

A mixture of chlorinated petroleum ester, benzene alkyl sulfonate chloride and chlorinated paraffin, light yellow transparent oily liquid.

Polyol esters

The main polyol esters are dipentaerythritol ester and ethylene glycol ester. Dipentaerythritol ester is an excellent heat-resistant plasticizer with low volatility, good extraction resistance, difficult thermal decomposition and oxidation, and good electrical insulation performance. It is suitable for high-temperature wire insulation formula, but it is expensive. Ethylene glycol ester has good cold resistance, but its color is dark and volatile.

Dipentaerythritol ester (PCB) dipentaerythritol ester can be divided into ether type and ester type. These two kinds of dipentaerythritol ester are light yellow viscous oil like liquid. They are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water.

Ethylene glycol 59 acid ester (0259) is a light yellow transparent liquid.

Polyester and trimellitic acid esters

Polyester plasticizers are generally low plasticizing efficiency, high viscosity, poor processability and low temperature performance, but they are low volatility, low mobility, oil and soap water extraction resistance, so they are very good durable plasticizers.

It is usually used in combination with phthalate esters as main plasticizers. Polyester is mainly used in automobiles, wires and cables, refrigerators and other long-term products. Native varieties are adipic acid, sebacic acid and other aliphatic dicarboxylic acid and diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butanediol and other diols condensation of low molecular weight polyester. Trimellitic acid ester is a kind of plasticizer with excellent properties, which has the advantages of both monomer plasticizer and polymerized plasticizer. Low volatility, low mobility, extraction resistance and durability are similar to polyester plasticizers, while miscibility, additivity and low temperature resistance are similar to phthalic acid esters.

Poly (propylene glycol sebacate) plasticizers with different molecular weights can be dissolved in acetone, dichloroethane, ether, benzene, toluene, xylene, chloroform, and partially soluble in ethanol, butanol and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) is a colorless to yellowish viscous oily liquid.

Tri (n-octyl-n-decyl) trimellitate (NODTM) is a colorless to yellowish oily liquid.


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